The 11th of January radio history was written in the arctic city of Bodo. This has been vital for achieving a digital switchover DSO. Norwegian authorities and politicians have actively been working with the digitization of radio since the end of the 90s. This was a crucial turning point for successful digitization. The urge of the Norwegian radio industry to keep radio relevant in the future has driven the DSO. National radio has increased from 5 to 31 services.
A phased switch-off region by region made it possible to run a better information campaign to prepare listeners Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 affected industries.
To limit listener loss for commercial radio during the switch-off year, broadcasters agreed that NRK should switch off first in most regions. On a weekly basis, 98 per cent of radio listeners have made the switchover. As expected, the decline has been greatest in the daily coverage. This indicates that listeners need time to replace all their radios. Listening is spread across many more stations than before, and the new stations are growing at the expense of the old ones.
In January, the new stations accounted for 34 per cent of all listening. Broadcasters have taken on an active role in providing information and help on the user side.
Listeners have hesitated to install a new gizmo in their cars. Retrofitting aerials requires expertise. Ina broad political majority decided to digitize radio. Except for the Progress Party, all the political parties voted for the digitization of radio, on the basis that radio needed the assurance of a future.
All sectors and industries experience major upheavals and changes through digitization and the constant development of technology. All media channels have gone through significant changes in terms of content, production and distribution. The growth of the Internet has created new distribution opportunities for the media. An ever-increasing media offering with more for the public to choose from leads to demands for radio services that are better adapted to listeners unique interests and taste in music.
The FM broadcast band is a limited natural resource. According to the Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority, now the Norwegian Communications Authority, it was not possible to establish more than 5 national FM networks in Norway in addition to local channels.
Broadcasting is the backbone of the distribution that ensures the special features of radio. Broadcast radio is free of charge, freely available to everyone, everywhere, all the time. All you need to do is to turn it on. Broadcast radio has always been free of charge for listeners. This is a key feature of radio, ensuring everyone free access to content. In contrast, the Internet entails costs associated with access and use mobile Internet.
Well-developed broadcasting networks that send a common signal to all receivers ensure that everyone can receive and listen to the content without restrictions. In contrast, the mobile Internet in particular has constraints related to both network capacity and volumes of data for users.
Radio requires nothing of you. It serves you a continuous stream of content according to your wishes. Broadcasting has also helped to make it easy to combine radio with other tasks. Radio is a secondary medium that reaches its audience in situations where other media channels are less suitable, for example, in the car and in the kitchen. These crucial features have enabled radio to maintain its strong position and high consumption, even though technological development has provided listeners with TV, CDs, MP3 files, Internet radio, streaming services and social media.
Despite its unique features, radio must be adapted and renewed to maintain its position in the years ahead. The FM networks were old and faced a major upgrade if they were to remain the pillar of broadcasting for a lengthy new period.
Investments in upgrading the old FM networks would have entailed high lease costs and still only five channels. Broadcasters preferred to spend the money on a modern platform that could provide the country with far more services. Norway has a challenging topography. To achieve national coverage, many transmitters are required.
From toNorwegian national radio was broadcast over two fully developed DAB networks combined with five FM networks. Broadcasters also distribute the services as IP streams via the fixed and mobile Internet. Although this has not amounted to a large proportion of radio listening so far, an increase is expected, which will also involve increased distribution costs.
The broadcasters lease the various networks from Norkring. Lease costs for the commercial DAB network are similar to the total lease cost for the two commercial FM networks. The big difference is that the DAB networks together distribute 31 national services compared with a total of 5 via FM.
Because FM is a scarce resource, the authorities Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 had to regulate its use through licence allocations. This has created unpredictable conditions for the radio Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019, for example when the commercial station P4 was not able to renew its licence inand similarly for several local radio stations in For this reason, the commercial players have long wanted greater predictability in their operating conditions.
Since broadcasting is no longer a scarce resource, as FM was, there is no basis for government to charge fees or impose content requirements. DAB provides enough capacity for everyone who wants and has the finances to operate radio to get a licence, as long as they have a distribution agreement with the network operator and with Norwegian law. In total, frequency capacity in Norway is regulated for up to 80 radio stations across Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 country via DAB, distributed through national, regional or local networks.
For other media channels, digitization has turned established business models upside down and created demanding and difficult transition processes.
Digital broadcasting enables "Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019" radio broadcasters to keep their advertising-based business model, avoiding many of the challenges that newspapers, Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 and TV face.
For the licence-funded Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation NRKthe ability to reach everyone in the country with its programmes is an important prerequisite. With the capacity constraints of FM, NRK was not able to offer the same content to all parts of the country. The two commercial FM networks with the stations P4 and Radio Norge had Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 and 90 per cent population coverage respectively.
The commercial radio groups P4-gruppen and Bauer Media now offer 16 radio stations to 92,8 per cent of the population via the Riks DAB network. With more capacity, NRK can tailor its services to a wider variety of audiences, fulfilling its mission as a public service broadcaster more effectively. Commercial broadcasters have long wanted to offer more content and more stations to larger parts of the country. New services have thus been launched, and pop-up services can be created to exist for shorter or longer periods.
By safeguarding radio distribution with a digital broadcasting platform that is available everywhere, free of charge, Norwegian radio will be better positioned in competition with international radio broadcasters and other media. A strong Norwegian radio industry connecting directly with its listeners, without third-party intervention in any form, is positive for Norwegian language and culture.
The extensive teamwork between national broadcasters as well as their shared recognition of the need for an FM switch-off have been vital to the digitization of radio. For NRKP4-gruppen and Bauer Mediait has always been important to work together on technology, but to compete on content. For this reason, these three broadcasters established the company Digitalradio Norge Digital Radio Norway jointly to achieve the smoothest possible transition to digital radio. Both Norsk Lokalradioforbund the Norwegian local radio association and the largest player in the local radio industry were invited to participate, but chose to stay outside.
Since the establishment of Digitalradio Norge, the broadcasters have focused on investing in attractive content, new radio services, and the marketing of these. The Ministry of Culture — assessed the situation and prepared a plan Report No. The Norwegian Media Authority — has followed up and checked the requirements in the plan approved by the Storting, and has provided information to affected parties, especially groups with special needs.
The Norwegian Communications Authority — has followed up and checked the coverage requirements in the plan approved by the Storting. The car industry — has gradually introduced DAB as standard in new cars, because DAB has become more common in several countries.
Towards the end of the digital switchover, the car industry has also found solutions for the after-sales market. The recycling industry — has long offered effective solutions collecting obsolete consumer technology, and has actively followed up the DSO by informing the public that old radios should be handed in and recycled. The company also monitors the development of the digital radio, through Digital Radio Survey conducted by Kantar Media.
For many years, long before the DSO process, Norwegians have bought betweenandradios per year according to the Consumer Electronics Trade Foundation. Since the parliamentary resolution inNorwegians have bought about 5 Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 DAB receivers. Upgrading car radios has been the greatest challenge for listeners. For many of them, it has been difficult and sometimes expensive to replace the entire radio or install an adaptor.
In addition, many listeners have had to spend time learning new functions and building new habits. Most local
Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 stations are still broadcasting on FM. The analogue licences last until According to figures from the Norwegian Media Authority, there were active content licences for local radio on FM in In addition, 84 content licences were granted for local radio on DAB.
Naturally, attitudes to the DSO vary between these.
Although the digitization provides improved operating conditions for local radio as well, the limited finances in the sector make it difficult for many of the players to take advantage of this in the short term.
Government authorities have established a support scheme for the digitization of local radio, which has helped several players to get started. Inthe Norwegian Media Authority allocated about NOK 10 million as investment support for the digitization of local radio stations. Licences and frequencies have been granted for the development of local DAB networks in 36 of 37 regions in the national DAB block for local radio, but many have not yet started the development process. The digitization of national Norwegian radio is the result of a thorough political process.
This proposed that radio should be digitized in a stakeholder-driven process with DAB as the technology for FM. The report unanimously recommended digitization of radio. The report was subsequently distributed for consultation. The White Paper Are mattg and leda still hookup 2019 that the digitization of radio could not happen without phasing out the FM network. It concluded that switch-off of the national FM networks should take place inalternatively in The Ministry specified that the transition to digital radio should be stakeholder-driven.
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