Gender essentialism is the theory that there are certain universal, innate, biologically- or psychologically-based features of gender different from Essentialism understanding of gender and sexual orientation that are at the root of observed differences in the behavior of men and women. This changed the locus of the origin of the essential differences, in Sandra Bem 's words, "from God's grand creation [to] its scientific equivalent: It was not until the middle of the 20th century and the writings of second-wave feminism starting with Simone de Beauvoir that the first alternative theory for gender difference was proposed.
This theory was developed by feminist theorists in the s, 70s, and beyond, and described gender difference as being socially constructednamely that the origin of gender difference is not in-born, but learned from interacting in society.
Feminists are by no means unanimous in supporting theories of the social construction of gender. Many adhere more to gender essentialism, to some intermediate viewpoint. The two theories — gender essentialism and social constructionism — inform an active debate about the origins of gender differences in the fields of feminism, philosophy, and sociology which are sometimes acrimonious and break out into local and national politics.
In feminist theory and gender studiesgender
Essentialism understanding of gender and sexual orientation is the attribution of a fixed essence to women. Essays on the Politics of Bodiesthat essentialism "entails the belief that those characteristics defined as women's essence are shared in common by all women at all times. It implies a limit of the variations and possibilities of change—it is not possible "Essentialism understanding of gender and sexual orientation" a subject to act in a manner contrary to her essence.
Her essence underlies all the apparent variations differentiating women from each other. Essentialism thus refers to the existence of fixed characteristic, given attributes, and ahistorical functions that limit the possibilities of change and thus of social reorganization.
Furthermore, biologism is Essentialism understanding of gender and sexual orientation particular form of essentialism that defines women's essence in terms of biological capacities. An example of this would be the claim that women's nature is a God-given attribute, or the ontological invariants in Sartrean existentialism or Freudian psychoanalysis that distinguish the sexes in the "claim that the human subject is somehow free or that the subjects social position is a function of his or her genital morphology".
A Proclamation to the World states the official view, and declares gender to be an "essential characteristic" of sons and daughters of God, and an "eternal identity. Church regulations permit, but don't mandate, ex-communication for those who choose sexual reassignment surgeryand deny them membership in the priesthood. The main alternative to gender essentialism is the theory of the social construction of gender.
In contrast to gender essentialism which views differences between men and women as innate, universal, and immutable, social constructionism views gender as created and influenced by society and culture, which can be different according to time and place, and that roles societally defined as appropriate behavior for a person of that specific sex then become the standard to which members of that sex are measured against.
Theories of the social construction of gender grew out of theories in second-wave feminism in the latter half of the twentieth century. Judith Butler 's theory of gender performativity can be seen as a means to show "the ways in which reified and naturalized conceptions of gender might be understood as constituted and, hence, capable of being constituted differently".
This statement distinguishes sex from gender suggesting that gender is an aspect of identity that is gradually acquired. Candace West and Sarah Fenstermaker also conceptualize gender "as a routine, methodical, and ongoing accomplishment, which involves a complex of perceptual, interactional and micropolitical activities that cast particular pursuits as expressions of manly and Essentialism understanding of gender and sexual orientation 'natures'" in text Doing Difference.
This does not mean that the material nature of the human body is denied, instead, it is re-comprehended as separate from the process by which "the body comes to bear cultural meanings". Analyzing gender has been a concern of feminist theory, thus there have been many modes of understanding how gender addresses meaning.
This refers to a problem for the concept of subjectivity presupposed by feminist theories of gender. Patrice DiQuinzio discusses "how critics of exclusion see this as a function of feminist theory's commitment to theorizing gender exclusively and articulating women's experiences in terms of gender alone".
DiQuinzio goes on to discuss how essentialism and exclusion work in relation to motherhood. Feminist theory which has used the idea of woman's essence to link gender socialization with exclusively female mothering, such as Nancy Chodorow's work, can be exclusionary and essentialist in the ways that it involves making universalizing and normalizing claims about mothers Essentialism understanding of gender and sexual orientation taking social, historical, or cultural context into account.
Furthermore, the essentialism of gender in feminist theory presents a problem when understanding transfeminism. Instead of understanding trans studies as another subsection or subjectivity to be subsumed under the category of "woman", we understand the task of trans studies to be "the breaking apart "Essentialism understanding of gender and sexual orientation" this category, particularly if that breaking requires a new articulation of the relation between sex and gender, male and female".
Social categories such as gender are often essentialized by not only adults but also children, as young children are recorded to display essentialist beliefs about gender preferences and indications. Poststructuralism indicates "a field of critical practices that cannot be totalized and that, therefore, interrogate the formative and exclusionary power of sexual difference", says Butler. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the
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Social construction of gender. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. An introduction to critical social psychology. London Thousand Oaks, California: The lenses of gender: God, sex, and gender: Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: Space, time, and perversion: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy. Struggling in good faith: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Yale French Studiesspecial issue: Witness to a Century. Feminists theorize the political. New York Oxfordshire, England: In Scott, Joan Wallach. Women's studies on the edge. Retrieved May 28, Retrieved from " https: Feminist terminology Feminist theory.
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It has been argued that gender essentialism impedes progress towards reliable and predicted lack of support for sex-role egalitarianism and support and preference for traditional roles, with biological attributions for gender. the nature of the superordinate concept of gender rather than the nature of. Gender essentialism is the theory that there are certain universal, innate, biologically- or psychologically-based features of gender (different from sex) This form of essentialism is based on a form of reductionism, meaning This statement distinguishes sex from gender suggesting that gender is an aspect of identity.
Essentialist treatment of sex, gender and sexuality. for many people, their understanding of their sexual orientation changes over time (Bohan & Russell.
Gender essentialism is the theory that there are predetermined universal, innate, biologically- or psychologically-based features of gender different from sex that are at the found of observed differences in the behavior of men and women. This changed the locus of the origin of the important differences, in Sandra Bem 's words, "from God's grand creation [to] its scientific equivalent: It was not until the medial of the 20th century and the writings of second-wave feminism starting with Simone de Beauvoir that the first alternative theory for gender difference was proposed.
This theory was developed by feminist theorists in the s, 70s, and beyond, and described gender difference as being socially constructed , namely that the origin of gender difference is not in-born, but learned from interacting in society.
Feminists are by no means unanimous in supporting theories of the social construction of gender. Many adhere more to gender essentialism, or to some medial viewpoint. The two theories — gender essentialism and social constructionism — incriminate an active debate approximately the origins of gender differences in the fields of feminism, philosophy, and sociology which are from time to time acrimonious and break thoroughly into local and subject politics.
Gender Essentialism the Social Construction of Gender and Transgender Theory
- GENDER ESSENTIALISM IS THE THEORY THAT THERE ARE CERTAIN UNIVERSAL, INNATE, BIOLOGICALLY- OR PSYCHOLOGICALLY-BASED...
- GENDER ESSENTIALISM - WIKIPEDIA
- WE BRIEFLY REVIEW SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONIST RESEARCH ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND SEXUAL THERE CAN BE NO TRUE...
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