The Masters and Johnson research teamcomposed of William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnsonpioneered research into the nature of human sexual response and the diagnosis and treatment of sexual disorders and dysfunctions from until the s.
Louis and was continued at the independent not-for-profit research institution they founded in St. In the initial phase of Masters and Johnson's studies, from untilthey recorded some of the first laboratory data on the anatomy and physiology of human sexual response based on direct observation of women and men in what they conservatively estimated to be "10, complete cycles of sexual response". Their findings, particularly on the nature of female sexual arousal for Masters and johnson human sexual response, describing the mechanisms of vaginal lubrication and debunking the earlier widely held notion that vaginal Masters and johnson human sexual response originated from the cervix and orgasm showing that the physiology of orgasmic response was identical whether stimulation was clitoral or vaginal, and proving that some women were capable of being multiorgasmicdispelled many long-standing misconceptions.
They jointly wrote two classic texts in the field, Human Sexual Response and Human Sexual Inadequacypublished in andrespectively.
Both of these books were best-sellers and were translated into more than thirty languages. The team has been inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame. Masters and Johnson met in when William Masters hired Virginia Johnson as a research assistant to undertake a comprehensive study of human sexuality.
According to author Thomas Maier, as part of their clinical research, and Johnson observed paid volunteers engaging in sexual activity while hooked to wires in their lab. Louis County; they nonetheless continued to work together professionally. Previously, the Masters and johnson human sexual response of human sexuality sexology had been a largely neglected area of study due to the restrictive social conventions of the time, with prostitution as a notable exception.
Alfred Kinsey and colleagues at Indiana University had previously published two volumes on sexual behavior in the human male and female known as the Kinsey Reportsin andrespectively, both of which had been revolutionary and controversial in their time. Kinsey's work however, had mainly investigated the frequency with which certain behaviors occurred in the population and was based on personal interviews, not on laboratory observation. In contrast, Masters and Johnson set about to study the structure, psychologyand physiology of sexual behavior, through observing and measuring masturbation and sexual intercourse in the laboratory.
Initially, participants used in their experiments were prostitutes. Masters and Johnson explained that they were a socially isolated group of people, they were knowledgeable about sex, and that they were willing to cooperate with the study. Of the prostitutes that participated, only a Masters and johnson human sexual response few were further evaluated for their genital anatomy and their physiological responses.
In later studies, however, Masters and Johnson recruited women and men from the community. The vast majority of participants were white, they had higher education levels, and most participants were married couples. As well as recording "Masters and johnson human sexual response" of the first physiological data from the human body and sex organs during sexual excitation, they also framed their findings and conclusions in language that espoused sex as a healthy and natural activity that could be enjoyed as a source of pleasure and intimacy.
The era in which Masters and johnson human sexual response research was conducted permitted the use of methods that had not been attempted before, and that have not been attempted since: One of the most enduring and important aspects of their work has been the four stage model of sexual response, which they described as the human sexual response cycle   and defined as:.
Their model shows no difference between Sigmund Freud 's purported categories of " vaginal orgasm" and " clitoral orgasm": Masters and Johnson's findings also revealed that men undergo a refractory period following orgasm during which they are not able to ejaculate again, whereas there is
Masters and johnson human sexual response refractory period in women: Masters and Johnson Masters and johnson human sexual response the first to conduct research on the sexual responsiveness of older adults, finding that given a state of reasonably good health and the availability of an interested and interesting partner, there was no absolute age at which sexual abilities disappeared.
While they noted that there were specific changes to the patterns of male and female sexual responses with aging — for example, it takes older men longer to become aroused and they typically require more direct genital stimulation, and the speed and amount of vaginal lubrication tends to diminish with age as well — they noted that many older men and women are perfectly capable of excitement and orgasm well into their seventies and beyond, a finding that has been confirmed in population-based epidemiological research on sexual function in the elderly.
Masters and Johnson randomly assigned gay men into couples and lesbians into couples and then observed them having sex in the laboratory, at the Masters and Johnson Institute.
They provided their observations in Homosexuality in Perspective: Assigned male homosexual study subjects A, B, C Usually, the discussion consisted of just a question or a suggestion, but often it was limited to nonverbal communicative expressions such as eye contact or hand movement, any of which usually "Masters and johnson human sexual response" sufficient to establish the protocol of partner interaction.
No coaching or suggestions were made by the research team. While initial stimulative activity tended to be on a mutual basis, in short order control of the specific sexual experience usually was assumed by one partner. The assumption of control was established without verbal communication and frequently with no obvious nonverbal direction, although on one occasion discussion as to procedural strategy continued even as the couple was interacting physically. Their research into the anatomy and physiology of sexual response was a springboard to developing clinical approach to the treatment of sexual problems in a revolutionary manner.
Prior towhen they described their treatment program to the world for the first time, sexual dysfunctions such as premature ejaculationimpotencevaginismusand female frigidity had been generally treated by long-term multi-year psychotherapy or psychoanalysis with very low rates of success. This was strictly a talking therapy — couples in their
Masters and johnson human sexual response therapy program were never observed in sexual activity.
From tothe Masters and Johnson Institute ran a program to convert homosexuals to heterosexuality. This program Masters and johnson human sexual response a Thomas Maier stated "that Virginia Johnson had serious reservations about Masters' conversion theory, and she suspected that, at worst, the results of the study may have been fabricated by William Masters". Kolodny also expressed reservations about the veracity of the findings in Masters's book on the topic and alleged that Masters had not kept files of the case studies cited in the book.
Some sex researchersShere Masters and johnson human sexual response in particular, have focused on understanding how individuals regard sexual experience and the meaning it holds for them.
Hite's work, however, has been challenged for methodological defects. Moreover, Masters and Johnson's research methodology has been criticized. First, Paul Robinson argues that because many of their participants were sex workers, it is highly likely that these individuals have had more sexual experience and are more comfortable with sex and sexuality in general. Other researchers have argued that Masters and Johnson eliminated same-sex attracted participants when studying the human sexual response cycle, which also limits the generalizability of their results.
Furthermore, Masters and Johnson have been criticized for studying sexual behaviors
Masters and johnson human sexual response the laboratory. While they attempted to make participants as comfortable as possible in the lab by giving them a "practice session" before their behavior was recorded, critics have argued that two people engaging in sexual activity in a lab is
Masters and johnson human sexual response different experience compared to being in the privacy and comfort of one's home.
Another persistent critique was that despite her extensive years of clinical work, Virginia Johnson never earned a university degree and often did not correct those who referred to her in the press or in person as "Dr.
The American cable network Showtime debuted Masters of Sexa dramatic television series based on the biography of the same name, on September 29, Masters and Johnson were also referenced in a Italian comedy directed by Bruno Corbucci, Il trafficone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Human sexual response cycle. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved September 22, A New View of a Woman's Body. Retrieved August 25, Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". Retrieved 25 April Little, Brown and Company, p. American Journal of Psychiatry. A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality. Retrieved March 2, That's why women 'have difficulty having orgasms' - they don't have difficulty when they stimulate themselves.
Plenty of women don't feel comfortable admitting it, even to themselves, for fear their partners will love them less. But women are far more experimental now. On female sexuality in the 21st century". Retrieved April 10, The case of the female orgasm: Retrieved January 5, The Modernization of Sex: Understanding Human Sexuality5th ed. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Masters and Johnson " datedand does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
One Book Called Ulysses. An Unfettered History book. Human sexuality and sexology. Sexual addiction Sex Addicts Anonymous Sexual surrogate. Outline of human sexuality. Gender binary Gender identity Men who have sex with men Sexual identity Sexual orientation Women who have sex with women. Sex portal Biology portal. Retrieved from " https: Washington University in St.
Human Sexual Response: Masters and Johnson: were summarized in the book Human Sexual Response (), which was considered by many to be the. The human sexual response cycle has an interesting history.
Many are familiar with the Masters & Johnson sexual response cycle. This was. The Sexual Response Cycle Sexuality and Commitment, Human Sexuality, Masters and Johnson on Sex and Human Loving, Homosexuality in Perspective.