Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: Sex differences generally refer to traits that are sexually dimorphic. A subset of such differences is hypothesized to be the product of the evolutionary process of Sexual differences between men and women selection.
Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases, which are diseases that occur only in people of one sex ; and sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more usual to one sex, or which manifest differently in each sex. For example, certain autoimmune diseases may occur predominantly in one sex, for unknown reasons.
Gender-based medicine, also called "gender medicine", is the field of medicine that studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease. Traditionally, medical research has mostly been conducted using the male body as the basis for clinical studies.
More recently, medical research has started to understand the importance of taking the sex into account as the symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between sexes.
Neither concept should be confused with sexually transmitted diseaseswhich are diseases that have a significant probability of transmission through sexual contact.
Sex-related illnesses have various causes: Research has found that female "Sexual differences between men and women" may be providing better care than male doctors in the U.
Sex differences in human physiology are distinctions of physiological characteristics associated with either male or female humans. These can be of several types, including direct and indirect. Direct being the direct result of differences prescribed by the Y-chromosome, and indirect being a characteristic influenced indirectly e.
Sexual dimorphism is a term for the phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. Direct sex differences follow a bimodal distribution. Through the process of meiosis and fertilization with rare exceptionseach individual is created with zero or one Y-chromosome. The complementary result for the X-chromosome follows, either a double or a single X. Therefore, direct sex differences are usually binary in expression although the deviations in complex biological processes produce a menagerie of exceptions.
These include, most conspicuously, male vs female gonads. Indirect sex differences are general differences as quantified by empirical data and statistical analysis. Most differing characteristics will conform to a bell-curve i.
Often only the mean or mean difference between sexes is given. This may or may not preclude overlap in distributions.
For example, most males are taller and stronger than females but an
Sexual differences between men and women female could be taller and stronger than an individual male. The extents
Sexual differences between men and women these differences vary across societies.
The most obvious differences between males and females include all the features related to reproductive role, notably the endocrine hormonal systems and their physiological and behavioral effects, including gonadal differentiation, internal and external genital and breast differentiation, and differentiation of muscle mass, height, and hair distribution. There are also differences in the structure of specific areas of the brain.
Research on biological sex differences in human psychology investigates cognitive and behavioral differences between men and women. This research
Sexual differences between men and women experimental tests of cognitionwhich take a variety of forms. Tests focus on possible differences in areas such as IQspatial reasoning, aggressionemotionand brain structure and function.
Chromosomal make up is important in human psychology. Women have two X chromosomes while males have an X and Y chromosomal structure. The X chromosome is much more active than Y and it affects behavior. Most IQ tests are constructed so that there are no overall score differences between females and males. Areas where differences have been include verbal and mathematical ability. Because social and environmental factors affect brain activity and behavior, where differences are found, it can be difficult for researchers to assess whether or not the differences are innate.
Studies on this topic explore the possibility of social influences Sexual differences between men and women how both sexes perform in cognitive and behavioral tests.
Stereotypes about differences between men and women have been shown to affect a person's behavior this is called stereotype threat. In his book titled Gender, Nature, and Nurturepsychologist Richard Lippa that there were large differences in women's and men's preferences for realistic occupations for example, mechanic or carpenters and moderate differences in their preferences for social and artistic occupations.
His results also found that women tend to be more people-oriented and men more thing-oriented. Differences in male and female jealousy can also be observed.
While female jealousy is Sexual differences between men and women likely to be inspired by emotional infidelity, male jealousy is most likely to be brought on by sexual infidelity. In
Sexual differences between men and women, Janet Shibley Hyde from the University of Wisconsin-Madison introduced the gender similarities hypothesis, which suggests that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables.
The research focused on cognitive variables for example, reading comprehension, mathematicscommunication for example, talkativeness, facial expressionssocial and personality for example, aggression, sexualitypsychological well-being, Sexual differences between men and women motor behaviors. A few exceptions
Sexual differences between men and women some motor behaviors such as throwing distance and some aspects of sexuality such as attitudes about casual sexwhich show the largest gender differences.
She concludes her article by stating: Hyde also stated elsewhere that "variations within genders are greater than variations between genders. She pointed out to several other studies on humans and other primates showing a levelling of sex differences in sociability and physical strength. Males and females might indeed have different timings of maturation of physical and verbal systems: This coincides with the higher mobility of boys, accompanied by their lower rates of speech development in childhood, in comparison to girls.
This middle age — middle sex phenomenon might explain why meta-analytic reports and several experimental studies of verbal abilities and dominance using adult participants reported no sex differences. Statistics have been consistent in reporting that men commit more criminal acts than women. Some differing explanations include men's evolutionary tendency toward risk and violent behavior, sex differences in activity, social supportand gender inequality.
Despite the difficulty of interpreting them, crime statistics may provide a way to investigate such a relationship from a gender differences perspective. An observable difference in crime rates between men and women might be due to social and cultural factors, crimes going unreported, or to biological factors for example, testosterone or sociobiological theories. Taking the nature of the crime itself into consideration may also be a factor.
Crime can be measured by such data as arrest records, imprisonment rates, and surveys. However, not all crimes are reported or investigated. Moreover, some studies show that men can have an overwhelming bias against reporting themselves to be the victims of a crime particularly when victimized by a womanand some studies have argued that men reporting intimate partner violence find disadvantageous biases in law enforcement.
Sometimes and in some places, there are sex differences in educational achievement. This may be caused by sex discrimination in law or culture, or may reflect natural differences in the interests of the sexes. Research has been undertaken to examine whether or not there are sex differences in leadership. Until recently, leadership positions have predominantly been held by men.
Women were rarely seen in senior leadership positions leading to a lack of data on how they behave in such positions. Sex differences in religion can be classified as either "internal" or "external. External religious issues can be broadly defined as an examination of a given religion from an outsider's perspective, including possible clashes between religious leaders and laity;  and the influence of, and differences between, religious perspectives on social issues.
For example, various religious perspectives have either endorsed or condemned alternative family structures, homosexual relationships, and abortion. Sex differences in social capital are differences between men and women in their ability to coordinate actions and achieve their aims through trust, norms and networks. There is potential that the concept can help to bring women's unpaid 'community and household labor',  vital to survival and development, to the attention of economists.
However, research analyzing social capital from a gendered perspective is and the notable exceptions are very critical. Sex differences in suicide have been shown to be significant; there are highly asymmetric rates of attempted and completed suicide between males and females.
Sex differences in financial decision making are relevant and significant. Numerous studies have found that women tend to be financially more risk-averse than men and hold safer portfolios. This framework robustly explains many financial decision making outcomes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.
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Sex differences in medicine. Sex differences in human physiology. Sex differences "Sexual differences between men and women" human psychology. Sex differences in crime. Sex differences in education. Sex differences in leadership. Sex differences in religion.
Sex differences in social capital. Sex differences in suicide. An Introduction to Marriage and the Family. Cengage Learning; [cited 17 June ]. The Evolution of Human Sex Differences. European Journal of Sport Science. Archived from the original on July 10, John; Blumenthal, Daniel M.
Journal of Human Evolution. The Gender and Science Reader ed. Muriel Lederman and Ingrid Bartsch. New York, Routledge, Are men's and women's fantasies really that different?
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