Infertility as a crisis can both lead to negative reactions and stress in infertile couples and bring about positive reactions and growth, to which henceforth posttraumatic growth is referred. This study was conducted to model the relation between martial adjustment and posttraumatic Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction through the mediation of religious coping strategies in infertile couples.
This correlation-based study was performed on couples at the infertility center of Shariati hospital, Tehran, Iran, selected via convenience sampling. This study used Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed significant positive relationships between marital adjustment and both positive religious coping strategies and posttraumatic growth.
A significant positive relationship between positive religious coping strategies and posttraumatic growth was also detected.
Positive religious coping strategies were observed to play a mediatory role between marital adjustment and posttraumatic growth. This was the case while Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction such a mediatory role to negative coping strategies was not possible. Based on the results, this study can be seen as further evidence showing the necessity of focusing on the role of positive religious coping strategies in marital adjustment and posttraumatic growth in infertile couples.
Infertility is defined as failing to conceive after one year of regular sexual intercourse in the absence of contraceptive methods 1. Experience of Infertility that some have called Infertility crisis, is associated with the physical, economic, psychological and social stress and it affect all aspects of life 2.
The negative effect of infertility on health and the physical integrity of the person 5as well as its role in damaging the quality of the marital relationship, reducing self-confidence, and causing distress and depression 6confusion, stress, sexual dissatisfaction 7 have been shown in various studies. As an important personal and social problem, in addition to being associated with numerous psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, distress, and life dissatisfaction, infertility can eventually lead to lack of marital adjustment 8.
In the past decade, marital adjustment and satisfaction along with its relation with other aspects of life has been studied extensively by psychologists 9. Marital adjustment is Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction fact "Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction" situation where the couple both feel happy and are satisfied with one another 10 and their satisfying relationship can be assessed via their mutual affection, care for each other, mutual acceptance and consensus.
Regarding this theory, specific practical attitudes, completely manifest the form and function of negative emotions. Positive emotions broaden the thought-action repertoires of the individuals and extend the range of ideas and actions that enter the mind These various ideas and actions each lead to paths through which positive emotions step beyond the ordinary thinking and acting practices.
Positive emotions therefore enlarge the cognitive context The fact that marital adjustment is the most important indicator of good performance in a family 13 and increases trust, love and loyalty 14 shows its significance.
Moreover, marital maladjustment, as a predictor of psychological distress 1516 is closely linked to an increased risk of depression and other psychological disorders, as well as divorce Even though it is well established that infertility can produce tension in social relations, mental disturbance in the couple, and divorce 18scholars have different views about the effect of infertility on marital adjustment. Many report a decrease in marital adjustment and functioning as a result of infertility, while others believe, based on detailed studies, that going through the diagnosis and treatment phases leads to higher levels of communication and intimacy between spouses For instance, according to the results of the study by Repokari and Punamakiinfertility treatment phases cannot be a threat to marital adjustment and splitting the stress between the spouses can in fact strengthen marital ties As recent studies have confirmed, not all people suffer from psychological issues after experiencing stress; in fact, for many of them, these crises serve as facilitators for increasing resistance and personal and social resources, developing new coping skills, and in general personal progress.
According to the existing literature, the following "Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction" have been identified to contribute to posttraumatic growth: Studies have also shown that religious coping strategies serve as an independent factor contributing to posttraumatic growth Park, and Murch showed that there is a direct relationship between religion, positive change, social support, and acceptance on the one hand and stress-related growth on the other In fact, since some aspects of religious practices and beliefs are extensively related to a healthy life, it is reasonable to expect religion to have a role in the way individuals cope with stressful events.
The literature confirms the importance of coping attitudes as a mediatory factor determining the psychological consequences of stress Based on what was said, the coping strategies of couples have been examined in numerous
Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction 8. The results show that coping strategies differ between well-adjusted couples and poorly adjusted couples.
Through religious coping strategies, infertile couples with better marital adjustment achieve a set of adjusting behaviors consistent with the event.
In general, considering the importance of posttraumatic growth in facing the damages and the aftermaths of stress along with the role it plays in helping the individual progress and achieve positive new changes, it seems necessary to identify the factors that are related to this growth and facilitate it.
The main aim of this study Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction to model the relationship between marital adjustment and posttraumatic growth and the mediatory role of religious coping strategies in infertile couples. This study measures correlation using structural equation modeling.
The statistical population in this research includes all infertile couples that have visited Shariati hospital, Tehran, Iran during the years and Four of the individuals did not answer the question regarding gender in the questionnaire.
The Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction number of years since marriage in the sample was Among the four possible cases for the source of infertility -male, female, both, unknown- the most common case was female infertility This scale measures four aspects of a relationship: Spanier calculated the reliability coefficient of this method to be 0.
In a study by Mollazadeh et al. To determine the validity of the scale, logical methods were used first to assess content
Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction. It is also worth noting that this scale has concurrent validity as well In the current study, the internal consistency coefficients for the four subscales of this questionnaire marital satisfaction, marital cohesion, marital consensus, and affective expression were found to be 0.
This method uses a scale of 0 to ; achieving and higher shows high adjustment and a better relationship while anything below that number shows a low level "Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction" adjustment Posttraumatic growth inventory is a test devised by Tedeschi and Calhoun used as a tool for evaluating positive consequences in people who have experienced undesirable events.
The questionnaire consists of 21 questions listed under five domains: The internal consistency of the test is reported to be 0. The test-retest reliability of the test was 0. In the present study, the internal consistency coefficients for the five domains relating to others, new possibilities, personal strength, spiritual change, and appreciation of life were found to be 0.
The responses are given weights based on Likert scales from 0 I never experienced this change to 5 I experienced this change to a high degree.
For each domain, the score is equal to the Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction of the scores of the responses to its corresponding items.
The final score of the scale can be calculated for PTGI. Religious Coping Inventory is created by Pargament et al. The test lists negative and positive coping strategies in two separate sets. The test has 21 subscales and comes in three versions: This study used the short version where each subscale has only one question. Of these 21 questions, 12 are dedicated to positive religious coping and 9 are dedicated to negative religious coping. In order to assess the reliability and validity of the test, in a preliminary study in the winter ofthe correlation between the scores that were achieved through using the two scales together was found to be 0.
The coefficient equaled 0. These results match the results found earlier by Pargament et al. In the present study, the internal consistency coefficients for negative and positive strategies were 0. In the factor analysis process, the items belonging to the positive coping strategies subscale were grouped; assigning questions 1, 13, 17, and 5 to p1, questions 20, 6, and 21 to p2, and questions 10, 11, and 19 to "Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction." The responses were weighted based on Likert scales from 0 never to 3 most of the times.
A higher score for each subscale shows higher use of the corresponding strategy. Patients visiting the infertility center of Shariati hospital the questionnaires voluntarily.
Afterwards, in order to analyze the data, in addition to calculating the zero order correlation
Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction for the main variables of the research, the structural relations between the variables were calculated via structural equation modeling to assess the performance of the test.
The p-value less than 0. Table 1 shows mean scores and standard deviations for the main variables of the study. The data of table 1 show that the mean and standard deviation of dyadic consensus subscale in marital adjustment factor, the mean and standard deviation of interpersonal relationship subscale in posttraumatic growth factor and the mean and standard deviation of positive strategies subscale in religious copying strategies, are the highest scores.
The results in table 2 show that Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction relation between the various levels of factors that affect marital adjustment excluding the marital satisfaction subscale and positive religious coping strategies is positive and significant.
Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction the other hand, the relation between these factors excluding the marital consensus subscale and negative coping strategies is negative and significant. Marital cohesion has a positive and significant relation with new possibilities, personal strengths, spiritual change, and appreciation of life. Marital consensus has a positive and significant relation with all of the subscales of posttraumatic growth.
Affective expression has a positive and significant relation with the subscales new possibilities, personal strength, spiritual change, and appreciation of life. Lastly, the relation between positive coping strategies and all of the subscales of posttraumatic growth is positive and significant while negative coping strategies does not have a significant relation with any of the subscales in posttraumatic growth.
In order to explain the distribution pattern of posttraumatic growth scores among infertile individuals through marital adjustment variables and religious coping strategies, the method of structural equation modeling was utilized, making sure beforehand that the relevant assumptions including univariate and multivariate normal distribution, linearity, and multicollinearity are valid.
Goodness-of-fit indices were also used showing that the model fit the data Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction Table 3. Figure 1 shows the results for the prediction of posttraumatic growth scores by marital adjustment through the mediatory role of positive coping strategies.
On the other hand, 0. Structural model display relationships between Marital Adjustment and Posttraumatic Growth variables by mediating Religious Coping Strategies. In the structural model assumed here Figure 2all path coefficients between the latent variables were statistically significant.
In this model, the relation between marital adjustment and positive religious coping strategies was positive and significant. The relation between marital adjustment and posttraumatic growth, as well as the relation between positive religious coping strategies and posttraumatic growth were also positive and significant. The mediatory model of positive religious coping strategies predicting posttraumatic growth through marital adjustment. In the latent variable positive religious coping strategies, p1 is the combination of items 1, 5, 13, and 17, p2 is the combination of items 6, 20, and 21, and p3 is the combination of items 10, 11, and It is worth noting that since joint dispersion between the subscales of negative religious coping strategies and the subscales of posttraumatic growth as the underlying factor was not statistically significant, it is not possible "Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction" analyze a mediatory role for negative religious coping strategies for the relation between marital adjustment and posttraumatic growth.
Based on these results, the Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction study shows that negative religious coping strategies do not explain the joint Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction of marital adjustment and posttraumatic growth in a statistically significant way.
According to the structural model, the indirect effect of the exogenous latent variable, i. The standardized overall effect of exogenous latent variable marital adjustment on posttraumatic growth was 0.
The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the mediatory role of positive religious coping strategies in the relation between marital adjustment and posttraumatic growth among infertile individuals. The results confirmed the existence of an indirect effect of marital adjustment on posttraumatic growth through positive religious coping strategies. According to this theory, the positive emotions stemming from marital adjustment results in expansion Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction their intellectual and behavioral assets.
Furthermore, these effects are accumulated and combined over time to lead to a spiraling path to-wards self-actualization and posttraumatic growth Posttraumatic growth as a variable related to well-being ultimately contributes to the continuation of the cycle in a positive direction through increasing positive emotions, i.
On the other hand, the existence of a positive and significant relation between martial adjustment and
Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction growth in infertile individuals, along with the results of some earlier studies, suggests that the infertility crisis has a role in instigating posttraumatic growth and boosting marital adjustment, allowing us
Omid soltani wife sexual dysfunction count it as an opportunity for bringing the couple closer together and consolidating their marriage For example, a study by Schmidt et al.
Omid Aminian . In relation with sexual dysfunction, the most affected domains were desire and arousal. . Participants were sexually active, married women, who were current users of withdrawal and were Amin Khalifeh- Soltani.
Results - of 5-Apr, Psychometric properties of Sexual Function Questionnaire: evaluation of an Iranian sample ·, Ashraf Alleyassin Afsaneh. Omid Soltani (Q). Iranian Singer Omid Kuala Lumpur Malaysia fishtrails.info 1, × 2,; KB.
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