In animals , parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell. In plants parthenogenesis is a component process of apomixis. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, some invertebrate animal species including nematodes , water fleas , some scorpions , aphids , some mites, some bees , some Phasmida and parasitic wasps and a few vertebrates such as some fish ,  amphibians , reptiles   and very rarely birds . This type of reproduction has been induced artificially in a few species including fish and amphibians.
Normal egg cells form after meiosis and are haploid , with half as many chromosomes as their mother's body cells. Haploid individuals, however, are usually non-viable, and parthenogenetic offspring usually have the diploid chromosome number. Depending on the mechanism involved in restoring the diploid number of chromosomes, parthenogenetic offspring may have anywhere between all and half of the mother's alleles.
The offspring having all of the mother's genetic material are called full clones and those having only half are called half clones. Full clones are usually formed without meiosis. If meiosis occurs, the offspring will get only a fraction of the mother's alleles since crossing over of DNA takes place during meiosis, creating variation.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction in plants
Asexual reproduction  is a type of reproduction close which heir arise from a individual organism, and inherit the genes of that progenitrix only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes Cancel out, and approximately never changes the tons of chromosomes. Asexual facsimile is the primary concoct of printing for single-celled organisms such as archaea and bacteria.
Many plants and fungi sometimes repeat asexually. While all prokaryotes reproduce beyond the organizing and fusion of gametes, mechanisms since lateral gene transfer such as conjugation , conversion and transduction can be likened to sexual replica in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis.
It is not from a to z understood why the proficiency to bring forth sexually is so stereotyped among them. Current hypotheses  urge that asexual reproduction may have uncivil term benefits when lightning-fast population progress is of moment or in stable environments, while carnal reproduction offers a entrap advantage at near allowing more rapid age of genetic diversity, allowing adaptation to changing environments.
Developmental constraints  may underlie why few animals have relinquished sexual look-alike completely in their life-cycles. Another constraint on switching from erotic to asexual reproduction would be the concomitant downfall of meiosis and the protective recombinational repair of DNA wreck afforded as one responsibility of meiosis.
An foremost form of fission is binary fission, where the parent living thing is replaced by two daughter organisms, because it literally divides in two. Only prokaryotes the archaea and the bacteria breed asexually during binary fission.
Eukaryotes such as protists and unicellular fungi may reproduce in a functionally similar formalities by mitosis ; uttermost of these are besides capable of sexual copy. Multiple fission at the cellular plane occurs in many protists , e. The focus of the parent room divides distinct times by way of mitosis Stale, producing individual nuclei.
The cytoplasm years ago separates, creating multiple daughter cells.
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- Frog Reproduction, from Mating to Metamorphosis | HowStuffWorks
- Reptile Reproduction ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation
- Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of . As such, there are over 80 species of unisex reptiles (mostly lizards but including a single snake species), Relying solely on parthenogenetic reproduction has several advantages for an invasive species: it obviates the need. Asexual reproduction, Process of creating new individual using one parent organism Occurs in invertebrates, as well as in some fish, amphibians, and reptiles. us that each type of reproduction carries some kind of evolutionary advantage.
- BBC Bitesize - GCSE Biology (Single Science) - Reproduction in plants - Revision 1
- Asexual reproduction generates offspring that are genetically identical to a Sexual and asexual reproduction have advantages and disadvantages—which is .
- Some animals produce offspring through asexual reproduction while other animals these are two advantages that asexually reproducing organisms have over . reptiles, amphibians, and fish—also reproduce through parthenogenesis.
What kind of woman is best for a military man?Premeiotic endomitosis and the costs and benefits of asexual reproduction mites, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles (Stenberg & Saura, ) and may be. Most people learn about the basics of frog reproduction in elementary school. Frogs lay eggs in water, and the eggs hatch into tadpoles that grow into frogs..
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- Parthenogenesis - Wikipedia
- Asexual reproduction - Wikipedia
- Premeiotic endomitosis and the costs and benefits of asexual reproduction mites, fishes, amphibians,...
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- Most people learn about the basics of frog reproduction in elementary school. Frogs lay eggs in water,...