This association is strongest among the youngest men in the sample, which may reflect changing conceptions of masculinity in later life. We close by considering several explanations for these findings, and urge additional research on the linkages between health, gender, and network structure. Much of this gendered behavior is relational in nature, as is widely recognized in gender research which focuses on the role of social interaction in the maintenance of cultural beliefs and experiences that support male privilege Ridgeway ; Ridgeway and Smith-Lovin ; West and
Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction Many sociologists who do not work on the "Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction" of gender also recognize the importance of advantages that are rooted in social network structure for things such as autonomy and influence e.
Our strategy for illustrating the importance to men of having independent access to network resources is not merely theoretical or logical. Rather, we aim to demonstrate empirically some of the negative consequences heterosexual men experience when their access to positions of advantage in social networks is compromised.
A key theoretical foundation of this study is the large body of work in medical sociology on the link between social relationships and health.
Most of this research emphasizes the benefits of being socially connected in terms of access to high-quality network ties that provide instrumental and socio-emotional support, social capital and informal social control, as well as sense of belonging and self-esteem e.
As some scholars have noted, however, one must consider the content and structure of social connections before one can understand how they affect health for a review, see Smith and Christakis We examine this idea using recent data on sexual health and egocentric social network ties from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project NSHAPa nationally representative study of older Americans that was conducted in — We discuss several psychological and relational mechanisms through which this network "Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction" circumstance could give rise to erectile dysfunction.
We close by discussing some important empirical limitations and the need for more research on the link between social networks and sexual health in both men and women. Empirical network research focuses on how the structure of interaction between men and women — for example, gender homophily in networks — perpetuates gender status differences e. Social network composition, which affects access to resources, is one important factor in this respect.
Some scholars point to evidence of such differences in network composition to help explain gender differences in advancement in the workplace, labor market outcomes, and entrepreneurial success Burt ; Fernandez and Sosa ; Ibarra ; McGuire, ; Renzulli, Aldrich, and Moody ; van Emmerik From this perspective, networks are important because they indirectly reinforce Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction gender roles by perpetuating gender status differences.
Scholarly treatments of masculinity emphasize self-reliance, control, and independence e. Network betweenness and bridging are particularly important in this regard Burt ; Freeman Bridging occurs when a person maintains connections
Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction at least two other actors who otherwise would be poorly connected. Social resource frameworks Lin ; Wellman and Wortley suggest that maintaining connections to actors in separate domains is advantageous because it yields access to heterogeneous social resources that are suited to different purposes.
This, in turn, gives those who occupy bridging positions more resources and more independence from exchange partners e. She introduces a key source of tension in the relational genesis of masculinity. On one hand, her presence and visibility within the network is essential to his identity as a heterosexual man.
On the other hand, she is one of the most highly embedded members of his network — increasingly so as the relationship progresses Kalmijn ; Milardo — and therefore often has access to his social contacts. What is important is how frequently the partner interacts with the confidant relative to the frequency with which ego interacts with the confidant.
Ego is likely to have very frequent contact with the partner, especially if it is his spouse. If so, then it is a strong
Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction, and we can also assume that his partner must have at least a weak tie infrequent contact with that confidant Granovetter This gives us the five triad forms shown in Figure 1. Triad A represents a situation in which ego is only weakly connected to the confidant, while his partner is not connected to the confidant.
This is probably a rare configuration, since confidant relationships are usually strong. Both this case and Triad B depict situations in which ego has greater access to the confidant than his partner has.
Triads C and D represent situations in which ego and his partner share equal access to the confidant. Solid lines represent frequent contact. Dashed lines represent relatively infrequent contact. Triad E is a special case that Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction the circumstance where ego has less contact with his confidant than his partner does. The partner has more access to both parties than they have to each other.
Drawing on social network approaches to bridging and we refer to this circumstance as partner betweenness. Regardless of its cause, given what we know from relational perspectives on gender, it is plausible that partner betweenness has important implications for men. It signals lack of access to unique resources through contacts.
Beyond this, it implies lack of autonomy, greater dependence on the partner for social contact, and reduced control over the flow of resources between the confidant and partner.
Lack of privacy is also a concern, the confidant may not be seen by ego as the best person to go to with a confidential concern— especially Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction it is about his partner. In sum, partner betweenness indexes a number of circumstances that may impede the realization of key components of traditional masculinity. But this may not be the case when network overlap is complete or when it engenders partner betweenness.
Reduced autonomy and the loss of exclusive social contacts could negatively affect individuals whose network relations are accessed more frequently by their partners. This is especially true of men, given the centrality of qualities like autonomy and control in masculine gender identity. One study of young couples found that men who perceive that they and their partners are too dependent on their relationship have lower self-esteem, while perceived dependence does not bother women in the same way Galliher et al.
Research has shown not only that access to diverse, separate network contacts in informal networks is associated with psychological well-being e. The implications of partner betweenness for psychological Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction relational outcomes such as self-esteem and relationship quality are important for understanding gender identity, as these factors are known to negatively impact one of the most direct physical expressions of masculinity; sexual function Hale and Strassberg ; Laumann, Paik, and Rosen ; Laumann et al.
For men, reduced autonomy, sense of control, self-efficacy, and related psychological constructs have direct associations with sexual function, as masculine identity is inextricably tied to the penis Martino and Pallotta-Chiarolli ; Zilbergeld This may be one of the subtle downstream implications of network connectedness for heterosexual men, and yet one of the most consequential for gender identity.
The etiology of ED can involve organic e. Organic causes of ED include low testosterone, reduced blood flow to the penis, Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction nerve damage — problems which can result from a number of serious conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease.
For example, partner betweenness may reduce testosterone levels. Furthermore, there is no known connection between social networks and testosterone.
Other causes of ED are probably more relevant in light of network-relational arguments. The most frequently examined factors that are known to give rise to psychogenic ED include stress, anxiety, low self-esteem, and depression. Given its psychological implications for men who subscribe to traditional models of gender identity, it is possible that partner betweenness produces ED through this psychogenic pathway.
Other factors that may give rise to psychogenic ED are even more relational in nature. Some studies point to relationship qualities that diminish arousal response, including incompatible sexual scripts between partners, partner discord, and low physical and emotional partner satisfaction Corona et al.
As is the case with research on the link between social support, networks, and various health outcomes see Smith and Christakismost research on relational causes of ED Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction on the intimate partner dyad. Supradyadic influences on ED that stem from a broader network have remained largely unexplored. We draw on the relational gender perspective by focusing on the implications of connections that exist between partners and their joint network members.
We focus our examination on older men for two reasons. For one, this is the group among whom erectile dysfunction is most prevalent. Second, partner betweenness is likely to be especially common among older adults. Couples that have Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction together longer have more overlapping social circles Johnson and Leslie ; Kalmijn ; Milardo Some of these changes are due to later-life experiences. Retirement reduces contact with people who are loosely connected to family e.
Severe health problems have a similar effect, especially when caregiving is involved. In these cases, close network members may increase contact with each other and with the partner to facilitate information sharing, monitoring, and coordination of support. This is less often the case with weak ties that are independent of the Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction, especially when caregiving involves difficult or potentially embarrassing tasks such as helping a person go
Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction the toilet Stoller and Pugliesi These processes combine to create denser core confidant networks, and therefore less network bridging potential for those experiencing health problems Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction ab.
Thus, through a number of processes, men tend to lose partner-independent social ties as they grow older. There is evidence that men are particularly sensitive to threats to independence and mastery that accompany aging Krause ; Mansfield, Addis, and Mahalik ; Mirowsky ; Silverstein, Chen, and Heller ; Smith et al.
At the same time, our arguments concerning the link between social network structure and ED make assumptions about the importance of traditional models of masculinity to men that may not be universally applicable. Older men place more emphasis on transferring values and giving advice about things like interpersonal relationships Mann ; Waldrop et al.
Kin relations become particularly important to older men according to this perspective because they provide the greatest opportunity to exercise this form of influence Davidson, Daly, and Arber This observation dovetails with social-psychological research which shows that older adults adopt a more emotional approach to their social relationships, as they focus less on instrumental ties that aid individual accomplishment and more on ties that provide socio-emotional fulfillment for a review, see Adams and Ueno It is possible that as they grow older, partner betweenness is less bothersome to these men and thus has fewer direct consequences for psychological well-being, for the quality of their intimate relationships, and ultimately for their sexual function.
We consider this possibility in the "Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction" of our investigation into the relationship between partner betweenness and ED.
The study consists of interviews with 3, non-institutionalized older adults ages 57—85conducted between autumn and spring NSHAP identified 4, potential respondents in the desired age range. NSHAP retained this design and also oversampled by age and gender to produce approximately equal cell sizes by gender across three age categories. The final response rate for the entire sample is Details about inclusion criteria for the analysis and efforts to address selection that arises as a result are provided below.
NSHAP included a module that asked respondents about problems they may have had with sexual function during the Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction year. The sexual dysfunction module was prefaced with the following statement:.
Sometimes people go through periods in which they are not interested in sex or are having trouble with sexual gratification. We have just a few questions about whether during the last 12 months there has ever been a period of several months or more when you….
As part of this module, male respondents indicated if, during this time, they had trouble getting or maintaining an erection. Men were also asked if they were unable to climax experience an orgasma form of dysfunction that is sometimes referred to as anorgasmia.
Cooperation on these items was high, with only 3 percent of men refusing to answer either question. These measures, as well as the key predictors of these measures, are described in Table 1. Bearman and Parigi raise some concerns about the extent to which this is true, especially with respect to content being discussed.
Our data show, however, that frequency of contact with named alters is fairly high, with Following the enumeration of network members, respondents were asked about the frequency with which they interact with each of their network members, as well as how frequently each of their network members interacts with each of their other network members. First, we include an indicator of whether the partnership is a marital or non-marital partnership.
Third, we construct a scale that taps satisfaction with the partner, based on three items: Including this measure helps distinguish partner network betweenness from partner dominance. Jun 5, By Jay Ferrari Related: The Men's Health Guide to Erectile Dysfunction: What Causes Normal cells, once hale and hearty, get replaced by non-elastic Check out How to Pleasure a Woman, the ultimate sex manual from. Nov 19, Sexual dysfunction – even when the result of prostate cancer treatment – may cause significant Jay Erickson, holding his two daughters,with his doctor, Darren Feldman.
Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) often have comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety.,, These. Hale VE, Strassberg DS. Jan 7, Introduction. Various studies Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men Are jay hale wife sexual dysfunction cardiovascular (CV) disease and postulate an.