Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation.
We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic especially huntingand companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response.
In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services.
The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so K ar dating limitations of qualitative research to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. After almost a century of endemic rabies infection in the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Sulawesicanine-rabies has spread to historically free islands in the east during the previous two decades 12.
While the drivers of the recent spread of rabies in Indonesia are unknown, infection of new islands has been attributed to movement of K ar dating limitations of qualitative research dogs associated with human activities such as fishing and visiting relatives 3. Sea trade routes and cultural exist between people in the south-east Asian and Oceanic regions and although international regulations restrict the movement of dogs, risk assessments indicate that the probability of unregulated movement—and thus the entry of rabies-infected dogs—from Indonesia into Australia and PNG is not negligible 4.
The global burden of rabies is high—it is estimated that tens of thousands of human deaths occur annually, the majority of which are caused by bites from infected dogs 5.
Although owned, they are usually allowed to roam freely 6. Additionally—and in contrast to other regions of the world in which rabies is endemic—Australia and PNG have feral and wild dog populations 7.
Rabies is challenging to eliminate from dog populations 589 ; endemicity in either the domestic or K ar dating limitations of qualitative research dog populations in Australia and PNG could have devastating, long-term impacts on both human and animal health in these countries.
Therefore, timely detection of a rabies incursion in PNG or Northern Australia is important to increase the probability of elimination and prevent human deaths. Recommendations included a One Health approach requiring sustained resources, understanding of socio-cultural contexts, technical and organizational and political support to support elimination efforts. Effective rabies surveillance in dogs is an essential component of elimination efforts, required to facilitate control measures and prevent human deaths.
The importance of surveillance was illustrated recently during an outbreak in Malaysia An effective surveillance system needs to have high positive predictive value and timely detection. To achieve this, methods such as risk assessment and evaluation of diagnostic tests have been used to focus resources to high-risk pathways and address requirements for rapid diagnosis. However, a surveillance system must also be sustainable to ensure that collected data are of high quality with comprehensive geographic and temporal coverage.
Key K ar dating limitations of qualitative research of sustainable systems—for example, reliability, flexibility, and simplicity—are more difficult to incorporate into surveillance system design because they require an understanding of the acceptability and value of the surveillance to the individuals required to participate in the system.
In the case of rabies surveillance, community participation is critical for the reporting of suspect cases; therefore, community acceptability and value of rabies surveillance is essential. This was demonstrated in a trial of community-based rabies surveillance in Kenya, in which high community engagement led to an increased rate of case detection Qualitative research methods such as ethnographic or interview-based studies "K ar dating limitations of qualitative research" provide insights about the human-driven contexts and mechanisms that lead to, or influence, particular actions and outcomes These methods can complement the findings of quantitative research such as observational and experimental studies and are now used widely in medical research to promote delivery of health services 14 — In the context of animal health, informal interviews are included in the repertoire of methods used in the discipline of participatory epidemiology 17 and have been used to identify production constraints, disease impacts, and feasible control strategies for endemic diseases 18 — These methods have also been used recently in the context of biosecurity research to evaluate the acceptability of existing surveillance systems using focus group discussions, interviews, and visualization approaches 21 — The objective of the current study was to use qualitative research methods to identify factors that will influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance in PNG and Northern Australia.
We aim to use the findings from this study to enhance existing non-specific surveillance and plan targeted, community-based, sustainable canine-rabies surveillance in PNG and Northern Australia. We also evaluate the use of qualitative research in this context. The core research for this study involved informal, semi-structured interviews, which were conducted with individuals or small groups two to six participants of informants in their homes or workplaces.
Qualitative analysis of transcripts identified themes relevant to the design of sustainable surveillance for canine-rabies. These regions have been identified to be at high K ar dating limitations of qualitative research of rabies incursion relative to other regions in PNG and Northern Australia in previous risk assessments [ 4B.
Map showing location of communities included in a study to identify factors that will influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.
Demographic data about the Australian study regions were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Census of Population and Housing The mean size of Australian communities included in this study was people [median people, range estimated 15—2, Mata Mata and Thursday Island, respectively ].
The foundation-year 10 school curriculum is consistent throughout Australia. Detailed population demographics were not available for the study region in PNG. The estimated population size of Mabaduan was 2, people Mabaduan village recorder, personal communication.
Therefore, access to education and health services in rural regions are limited due to poor infrastructure and lack of resources. However, residents in South Fly have access to emergency health care in the Torres Strait Informants were selected purposively to obtain comprehensive information from a range of stakeholder groups.
The stakeholder groups included the following:. Other information and perspectives were gained from people who were selected opportunistically during field-trips; for example, aircraft pilots, Animal Management in Rural and Remote Indigenous Communities employees, 2 and hospitality, building, and retail industry workers.
Direct observations were also made during visits to communities regarding the general level of dog health. Data collection took place between February and June Informants were interviewed in their homes or workplaces.
Interviews were semi-structured, so that informants could talk freely and about topics that they considered important. This flexibility also allowed researchers to investigate themes more thoroughly, dependent on informant experiences and perspectives. Researchers were accompanied by community members who translated interviews when informants preferred to talk in languages other than English.
Informants were offered parasiticides for their dogs, to thank them for participation in the Topics and example questions used in semi-structured interviews in a study to identify factors that will influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea PNG. Interview transcripts and opportunistically collected information and perspectives were collated using qualitative data analysis software NVivo; QSR International Pty Ltd.
All informants were resident in the study regions. All informants were willing to talk about their personal and workplace experiences related to dogs. Number of semi-structured interviews and informants in a study to identify factors that will influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG. The strongest theme for effective modes of communication both within and between communities was verbal communication.
This theme was consistent among informants from all study regions and backgrounds. Preferred modes of verbal communication for dissemination of "K ar dating limitations of qualitative research" between and within communities included direct conversation, listening to the radio, or attending community meetings.
Direct communication K ar dating limitations of qualitative research the preferred method to inform other people about concerns such as poor dog health. In East Arnhem, informants were most likely to communicate concerns to elders and in other regions in this study, informants stated that they would speak to authorities, including biosecurity officers and AMWs or EHWs.
Social media was also mentioned as potentially useful in some regions East Arnhem and with some participant groups young adults and school children in the NPA and Torres Straithighlighting that effective modes of communication should be re-assessed as the use of social media develops in these regions.
Pictures were also thought to be a potentially useful method to information, but delivery of messages via written media for example, leaflets and posters in health clinics appeared less likely to be effective. Written media were not mentioned by Indigenous K ar dating limitations of qualitative research, and HWs said that leaflets and posters were largely ignored by patients and community members.
In general, education about animal health and biosecurity was difficult to include in primary schools teachers explained that there is insufficient space for these topics unless they support activities within the existing curriculumand students in high school do not value agriculture-based classes.
Informants also stated that information about rabies surveillance should be delivered in local languages because English is not the first language of many residents. Excerpts from interview transcripts relevant to the theme of communication are shown in Box 1. Some people… they can get very intense. Dog value was a potential motivator to report health concerns about dogs. In the NPA and PNG, dogs are valued for hunting because they provide an important source of cheap protein feral K ar dating limitations of qualitative research, deer, or cattle.
In East Arnhem, the cultural value of dogs was strong—informants described how harm to dogs can cause tangible pain to individuals for whom the dog is their totem. Although the cultural value of dogs was more abstract in other regions, dogs were totems for individuals throughout the study regions including PNG. In some circumstances, dogs also had economic value apart from hunting.
Payments could also be made to custodians of dog dreaming if a dog is harmed so that pain to ancestors and people connected to dogs through their totem is avoided.
Dogs were also valued as companions in all regions and to enhance the social status of the owner in some regions. This was particularly apparent in
K ar dating limitations of qualitative research Torres Strait, where residents were sometimes keen to acquire particular breeds of dog from the Australian mainland.
Informants said that the lack of veterinary services in most regions was the greatest barrier to reporting health concerns in dogs. theme was consistent between all informants and regions in this study. In the context of this study, a veterinary service refers to availability of a registered veterinarian who is able to examine animals, provide diagnoses, and prescribe treatments.
In the Torres Strait, a veterinarian visits the region biannually and provides basic services such as dog population control.
Therefore, animal health care is generally limited to services provided by AMWs and EHWs, which include supply of parasiticides and disposal of dead dogs in some regions. Informants were aware of potential zoonotic disease transmission another potential motivator —for example, dogs with skin disease such as mange and ticks were perceived as a risk to family health.
Throughout all regions, informants stated that parasitic skin disease in dogs was common K ar dating limitations of qualitative research wanted parasiticides for their dogs. In Northern Australian regions, cane-toad poisoning and snake envenomation both differential diagnoses for rabies are sufficiently common in dogs that informants could describe clinical signs.
Informants explained that there was no incentive to report these concerns because treatment was not available. This led to acceptance that unhealthy dogs are a normal, daily occurrence. Consistent with this theme, researchers observed that dogs appeared generally healthier in regions in which veterinary services were available intermittently Torres Strait islands or continuously Yirrkala, East Arnhem.
Other themes about barriers to reporting were region-specific or less common. Lack of trust of authorities and fear of shame or recrimination within the community were both barriers to reporting concerns about dogs in East Arnhem. This was attributed to historical experiences such as inhumane dog control. Throughout all regions in the study there was also an apparent lack of concern for dog welfare by some community members, attributed to insufficient connection to culture, and therefore, lack of "K ar dating limitations of qualitative research" that dogs are part of family.
Excerpts from interview transcripts relevant to motivation and barriers to reporting health K ar dating limitations of qualitative research in dogs and level of expectations about dog health are shown in Box 2.
Dog is not alone from humans. My totem is dog.
This comes from Saibai. Not because of cultural beliefs, but because they are attached to their dog. There is nobody to help. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the.
in this study was people [median people, range estimated . Hampson K, Coudeville L, Lembo T, Sambo M, Kieffer A, Attlan M, et al. Archive Number:Published Date: (). qualitative research and presents the assessment of quality as a situated practice.
. To date, proposals of criteria to assess the merit of. Keywords: Qualitative research, translators, interpreters, translation, research methods, international research .
The date limitation was chosen because qualitative research . [PubMed]; Fredrickson K, Rivas Acuña V, K ar dating limitations of qualitative research M. Cross-cultural analysis .
Yeates R, Rospigliosi E, Thompson AR.
Had independent translator translate a small number of interviews to validate translation completed within the study. In the NPA and PNG, dogs are valued for hunting because they provide an important source of cheap protein feral pigs, deer, or cattle. Did not have an independent source validate the translations when appropriate 5. These four areas provide key strategies for addressing translation issues in qualitative research.
Indicated that an experienced researcher audited data and data collection process, but did not indicate if that researcher spoke the language of the participants. In regions such as PNG and East Arnhem, it is likely that community elders will need to be engaged to encourage reporting. Despite 40 Ca being the favored daughter nuclide, it is rarely useful in dating because calcium is so common in the crust, with 40 Ca being the most abundant isotope.
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All informants were resident in the study regions. This page was last edited on 20 September , at From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Direct observations were also made during visits to communities regarding the general level of dog health. For the J to be determined, a standard of known age must be irradiated with the samples of unknown age. This led to acceptance that unhealthy dogs are a normal, daily occurrence.
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