The historic counties of England are areas that were established for administration by the Normansin many cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires created by the Anglo-Saxons and others. They are alternatively "Historic kent boundaries in dating" as ancient counties  traditional counties former counties   or simply as counties.
Unlike the partly self-governing boroughs that covered urban areas, the counties of medieval England existed primarily as a means of enforcing central government power, enabling monarchs to exercise control over local areas through their chosen Historic kent boundaries in dating — originally sheriffs and later the Lord-Lieutenants — and their subordinate justices of the peace.
The name of a county often gives a clue to how it was formed, either as a division that took its name from a centre of administration, an ancient kingdom, or an area occupied by an ethnic group. Former kingdoms, which became earldoms in the united
Historic kent boundaries in dating did not feature this formulation; so for Kent, the former kingdom of the Jutes"Kentshire" was not used.
Counties ending in the suffix "-sex" are also in this category and are former Saxon kingdoms. Many of these names are formed from compass directions. The third category includes counties such as Cornwall and Devon where the name corresponds to the tribes who inhabited the area.
Instead, it was a diocese that was turned into the County Palatine of Durhamruled by the Bishop of Durham. There are customary abbreviations for many of the counties. In most cases, these consist of simple truncation, usually with an "s" at the end signifying "shire", such as "Berks" for Berkshire or "Bucks" for Buckinghamshire. Some abbreviations are not obvious, such as "Salop" for Shropshirefrom the Norman -derived word for its county town Shrewsbury; "Oxon" for Oxfordshirefrom Latin Oxonium referring to both the county and the city of Oxford ; "Hants" for Hampshire ; and "Northants" for Northamptonshire.
Those counties named after central towns lost the -"shire" suffix, for example Yorkshire would be known as "County of York". This usage was sometimes followed even where there was no town by that name, such as the Historic kent boundaries in dating of Berks".
The "-shire" suffix was also appended for some counties, Historic kent boundaries in dating as "Devonshire", "Dorsetshire" and "Somersetshire", despite their origin.
Great Britain was first divided into administrative areas by the Romans, most likely following major geographical features such as rivers. After the demise of Roman Britain around these first divisions of land were generally abandoned, although traditional divisions taking the form of petty kingdoms such as PowysDumnonia and Elmetremained in those areas which remained Britishsuch as south west England.
The areas that would later form the English counties started to take shape soon afterwards, with the Kingdom of Kent "Historic kent boundaries in dating" by settlers around In southern England more shires emerged from earlier sub-kingdoms as part of the administrative structure of Wessexwhich then imposed its system of shires, boroughs or burhs and ealdormen on Mercia after it came under West Saxon control during the 9th century.
The whole kingdom was divided into shires by the time of the Norman conquest. Robert of Gloucester accounts for thirty-five shires and William of Malmesbury thirty-two,  Henry of Huntingdon, thirty-seven. After the Norman conquest the sheriff was replaced and the shires became counties, or "areas under the control of a count",  in the French manner. Although all of England was divided into shires by the time of the Norman conquest, some counties [ which?
Because of their differing origins the counties varied considerably in size. The county boundaries were fairly static between the 16th century Laws in Wales acts and the Local Government Act In southern England the counties were mostly subdivisions of the Kingdom of Wessexand in many areas represented annexed, previously independent, kingdoms or other Historic kent boundaries in dating territories.
Only one Historic kent boundaries in dating on the south coast of England now usually takes the suffix "-shire": Hampshirenamed after the former town of "Hamwic" sicthe site of which is now a part of the city of Southampton. A "lost" Saxon county was Winchcombeshire which lasted from to before being incorporated into Gloucestershire. When Wessex annexed Mercia in the 10th century, it subdivided the area into various shires of roughly equal size and tax-raising potential or hidage.
These generally took the name of the main town the town of the county, along with "-shire". Examples of these include Northamptonshire and Warwickshire.
In some cases the original names have been worn down — for example, Cheshire was originally "Chestershire". In the east Midlands, it is thought that county boundaries may represent a 9th-century Historic kent boundaries in dating of the Danelaw between units of the Danish army. Lincolnshire was the successor to the Kingdom of Lindseyand took on the territories of Kesteven and Holland when Stamford became the only Danelaw borough to fail to become a county town.
Much of Northumbria was also shired, the best known of these counties being Hallamshire and Cravenshire.
The Normans did not use these divisions, and so they are not generally regarded as ancient counties. The huge county of Yorkshire was a successor to the Viking Kingdom of Yorkand at the time of the Domesday Book in it was considered to include what was to become northern Lancashireas well as parts of Cumberlandand Westmorland.
Most of the later Cumberland and Westmorland were under Scottish rule until After the Norman Conquest in and the harrying of "Historic kent boundaries in dating" Northmuch of the North of England was left depopulated and was included in the returns for Cheshire and Yorkshire in Historic kent boundaries in dating Domesday Book.
Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire, County Durham and Northumberland were established as counties in the 12th century. Lancashire can be firmly dated to At the time of the Domesday Booksome parts of what later became Wales were accounted as parts of English counties; Monmouthfor example, was included in Herefordshire. There was historic ambiguity
Historic kent boundaries in dating to the status of the county of Monmouthshire.
Laws since relating to Wales alone applied to " Wales and Monmouthshire "  and for most purposes it was regarded as part of Wales. This relationship continued until the Local Government Act created a new office of High Sheriff of Middlesex appointed in the same manner as other English and Welsh counties, created the County of London with its own High Sheriff, and restricted the jurisdiction of the sheriffs of London to the City.
During the Middle Ages a number of other large cities and towns were granted the status of self-governing counties separate from adjacent counties. Such a county became known as a county corporate or "county of itself".
For most practical purposes this separate status was replaced in the late 19th century when county boroughs were introduced.
Bristol developed as a major port in the medieval period, straddling both sides of the River Avon which formed the ancient boundary between Gloucestershire and Somerset. In Edward III decreed. Similar arrangements were later applied to NorwichSouthamptonCanterburyGloucesterExeterand Poole Charters were granted constituting the boroughs or cities of LincolnNottinghamLichfield and Worcester as counties. The "Historic kent boundaries in dating" of the City of Coventry was separated from Warwickshire inand included an extensive area of countryside surrounding the city.
In Berwick upon Tweedon the border with Scotlandwas created a county corporate. The ancient counties had many anomalies, and many small exclaveswhere a parcel of land was politically part of one county despite not being physically connected to the rest of the county. The Counties Detached Parts Act modified the counties by abolishing the many enclaves of counties within others, which had already been done for Parliamentary purposes by the Great Reform Act. Large exclaves affected by the Act included the County Durham exclaves of IslandshireBedlingtonshire and Norhamshirewhich were incorporated into Northumberland ; and the Halesowen exclave of Shropshire, which was incorporated into Worcestershire.
Exclaves that the Act did not touch include the part of Derbyshire around Donisthorpelocally in Leicestershire ; and most of the larger exclaves of Worcestershireincluding the town of Dudleywhich remained surrounded by Staffordshire. Additionally, the Furness portion of Lancashire remained separated from the rest of Lancashire by a narrow strip of Westmorland — though it was accessible by way of the Morecambe Bay tidal flats.
When the first county councils were set up inthey covered newly created entities known as administrative counties. Several historic subdivisions with separate county administrations were also created administrative counties, particularly the separate ridings of Yorkshirethe separate parts of Lincolnshire, and East and West Sussex. The effect was that new county boroughs which were counties corporate retained their status as separate counties.
In retrospect, these
Historic kent boundaries in dating counties can be identified as the predecessors of the ceremonial counties of England. The censuses ofand provided figures for the "ancient counties". In Newmarket and Tamworth the county boundary ran right up the middle of the high street, and in Todmorden, the historically fractious border between Lancashire and Yorkshire the river known as Walsden Water had had Todmorden Town Hall built right Historic kent boundaries in dating top of it on a culvert tunnel, dividing the hall down the middle between the two counties — a division reflected in its architecture.
The Act ensured that every urban sanitary district would be considered to be part of a single county. This principle was maintained in the 20th century: On 1 April a number of changes came into effect. The new administrative area of Greater London was created, resulting in the abolition of the administrative counties of London and Middlesex, at the same time taking in areas from surrounding counties. On the same date the new counties of Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely and of Huntingdon and Peterborough were formed by the merger of pairs of administrative counties.
The new areas were also adopted for lieutenancy and shrievalty purposes. In a major local government reform took place under the Local Government Act The Act abolished administrative counties and county boroughs, and divided
Historic kent boundaries in dating except Greater London and the Isles of Scilly into counties.
These were of two types: The built-up areas of conurbations tend to cross historic county boundaries freely. Historic kent boundaries in dating London itself straddles five ancient counties — EssexHertfordshireKent, MiddlesexSurrey — and the London urban area sprawls into Buckinghamshire and Berkshire.
The Local Government Act sought generally to unite conurbations within a single county, while retaining the historic county boundaries as far as was practicable. In a period of financial crisis,  the Post Office was able to alter many of its postal counties in accordance with the and reforms, but not all. The two major exceptions were Greater London and Greater Manchester.
Greater London was not adopted insince, according to the Post Office at the time, it would have been too expensive to do so, while it gave as Historic kent boundaries in dating reason for not adopting Greater Manchester the ambiguity of the name with the Manchester post town.
Perhaps as a result of this, the ancient counties appear not to have fallen completely out of use for locating places in Greater Manchester, along with areas of Greater London that are not part of the London post town. It is common for people to speak of " UxbridgeMiddlesex", " DagenhamEssex" or " BromleyKent" which are outside the London postal districtbut much less so to speak of " BrixtonSurrey", " GreenwichKent", or " West HamEssex" which are inside it.
Infollowing further local government reform and the modernisation of its sorting equipment, the Royal Mail ceased to use counties at all in the direction of mail. The former postal counties were removed in from its Postcode Address File database and included in an "alias file",  which is used to cross-reference details that may be added by users but are no longer required, such as former street names or historic, administrative and former postal counties.
During a public consultation in Postcomm found that many respondents objected to the use of counties in the alias file. In May Postcomm announced that it was encouraging Royal Mail to discontinue the use of counties in its alias file at the Historic kent boundaries in dating opportunity.
However because some existing software included the use of counties, Royal Mail was advised not to implement the change before The historic counties of England continue to be used as the basis for county cricket teams  and the governance of cricket in England through the ECB County Boards. A review of the structure of local government in England by the Local Government Commission for England led to the restoration of the East Riding of YorkshireHerefordshireRutland and Worcestershire
Historic kent boundaries in dating administrative areas in the s; the abolition of Avon, Cleveland and Humberside within 25 years of their creation; and Historic kent boundaries in dating restoration of the traditional borders between Somerset and Gloucestershire except Historic kent boundaries in dating BristolCounty Durham and Yorkshire towards the mouth of the River Tees ; not in Teesdaleand Yorkshire
Historic kent boundaries in dating Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes in these areas.
The case of Huntingdonshire was considered twice, but the Commission found that "there was no exceptional county allegiance to Huntingdonshire, as had been perceived in Rutland and Herefordshire".
The Association of British Countiesand its regional affiliates, such as the Friends of Real Lancashire and
Historic kent boundaries in dating Yorkshire Ridings Society  are pressure groups that assert that, on the basis that they were not formally abolished, the counties continue to exist with their ancient boundaries.
These groups seek to promote greater public awareness of what they term "traditional counties" and broadly wish to see counties realigned to the historic boundaries.
InSecretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties. The flags of England's historic counties have been flown from Government offices in support of these identities. Of the 39 historic counties in England, 36 now have registered flags, many of them recently adopted.
Sussex  and Yorkshire both historic counties and long abandoned as units for administrative purposes, Historic kent boundaries in dating continued to be widely recognised as cultural regions, significant in sport and used by many organisations as regional units. These counties, and several others, have a county day in which the culture and history of the historic county is celebrated; many of these county days were created the 21st century.
A direct action group, CountyWatchwas formed in to remove what its members consider to be wrongly placed county boundary signs that do not mark the historic or traditional county boundaries of England and Wales. Old maps of Kent on Old Maps Online. Discover the past of Kent on historical maps. Kent is a traditional county in South East England with long-established human occupation. basis for the later town of Folkestone, whilst a hillfort of that date seems to be the forerunner of Dover Castle.
Here once stood an ancient boundary stone, near The Hops and Vine public house – formerly The Belisha Beacon. Field and Documentary Evidence: Otford in Kent. By GEOFFREY numerous farms and boundaries of ancient origin, the most obviou ruined palace of the It is at this point that dating
Historic kent boundaries in dating field evidence amplifies the documentary inf tion.
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The Kingdom of the Kentish Old English: Regnum Cantuariorum , today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent , was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England. It existed from either the fifth or the sixth century CE until it was fully absorbed into the Kingdom of England in the tenth century. Under the preceding Romano-British administration the area of Kent faced repeated attacks from seafaring raiders during the fourth century CE. It is likely that Germanic-speaking foederati were invited to settle in the area as mercenaries.
Following the end of Roman administration, in , further linguistically Germanic tribal groups moved into the area, as testified by both archaeological evidence and Late Anglo-Saxon textual sources. The primary ethnic group to settle in the area appears to have been the Jutes: It has been argued that an East Saxon community initially settled West Kent, but was conquered by the expanding kingdom of East Kent in the sixth century.
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Dury An accurate map of the county of Kent 1 Karte: Kupferdruck ; 50 x 69 cm Bowen; Hinton sold close to J. Hinton at the Kings Arms in St. It shows the network of sewers and waterways in the area and is principally concerned with drainage. The locations of bridges are carefully recorded. The topography of the landscape is depicted with hills, trees, churches, towns, villages and windmills shown pictorially.
A small island in the briny records the location where a village once stood. Camber fortress is shown and the draughtsman has attempted to indicate the actual architectural features of the castle.
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Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames connected by come to rest via High Speed 1 and the Dartford Crossing , and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Mine. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury , head of the Church of England , since the conversion of England to Christianity by Saint Augustine began in the 6th century.
Rochester Cathedral is furthermore located in Kent, in Medway. It is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history; the Cinque Ports in the 12th—14th centuries and Chatham Dockyard in the 16th—20th centuries were of particular value.
Should I Call Her?Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater The name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, .. Blackheath FC, a club within the historic boundaries of the county, play in National League 1, the third tier of English rugby. Old maps of Kent on Old Maps Online. Discover the past of Kent on historical maps..
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- A map of the parish boundary may be found at A church near you Date accessed: 21 November at British History Online. Old maps of Kent on Old Maps Online. Discover the past of Kent on historical maps.
- History of Kent - Wikipedia
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